A bite from a horse fly takes quite some time to heal. Folks, if we never work at solving the problem, we will never get rid of the problem – and it will continue to get worse. The horn fly can also serve as an intermediate Figure 1. Female face flies are most readily attracted to grass-type manure and lay their eggs within 15 minutes after it is deposited. 2002. Although both flies have a piercing proboscis, horn flies have longer maxillary palpi relative to the proboscis. These losses are greatest to lactating cows and growing calves. Horn flies are more prevalent in the spring and the fall with a drop in the population during the height of summer heat in Texas and during the winter months. Horn flies spend the majority of their time on the animal, although females leave the animal to deposit eggs in fresh manure. Symptoms may include: Skin lesions Allergic dermatitis Mechanical dermatitis Nodules and pustules Inflammation A rash of weals (fluid filled) will develop. The fly’s life cycle from egg to adult is 10 to 14 days. Journal of Animal Science 70: 597-602. pupating. Economically, the horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans (L.), is the most important arthropod pest of pastured cattle in the United States (Byford et al. The face fly, Musca autumnalis (De Geer), is a robust fly that closely resembles the house fly (Figure 1). Prevention. The bites from the horn fly are clearly obvious on the skin. Journal of Economic Entomology 74: 608-611. Catching or locking of the knee joint. Screwworm (fly), a parasitic fly known for its screw-shaped larvae, which infest open wounds. Wheezing. Horn fly irritation – This contributes to abdominal midline dermatitis. Mechanical control: An old, and perhaps effective, non-chemical control tactic that has been critically evaluated in recent years is the walk-through horn fly trap. 1996. Szalanski, AL, Black WC, Broce AB. Larvae: The newly hatched maggots are white and about 1.5 mm long with a slender pointed head. [2] [3] Heterochromia iridium (i.e., a relative deficiency of pigment in the iris of affected side of the face) is usually present when the syndrome is congenital or caused by a lesion that has occurred before the age of 1-2 years of age. Horner syndrome is a combination of signs and symptoms caused by the disruption of a nerve pathway from the brain to the face and eye on one side of the body. Individual flies pierce the skin with their short, tube-like mouthparts 20 to 30 times per day to ingest a small amount of blood. Photograph by Jerry Butler, University of Florida. Effect of larval rearing temperature and maternal photoperiod on diapause in the horn fly (Diptera, Muscidae). The horn fly’s ability to thrive allows for large densities in a small amount of time and just treating for the adults will not decrease the infestation. Horn fly populations usually peak in late spring and again in late summer or early fall. Trap options are limited for horn fly adults*. Important fly pests of Louisiana beef cattle. The eggs hatch between one to two days after being laid (Foil and Hogsette 1994). Horner syndrome is a rare disease that causes problems with one side of your face. It is an obligate blood-feeding ectoparasite, feeding almost exclusively on cattle. Beneficial organisms such as predators, parasites and natural competitors occur naturally in the breeding locations of the horn fly larvae. Cattle producers are encouraged to protect these natural enemies of the horn fly, as without them, populations would assuredly be much higher. Beef cows can tolerate upwards of 200 flies per animal, while bulls can tolerate the greatest number of horn flies (Schreiber et al. fly larvae pass through three stages of development before Figure 1. Hu GY, Frank JH. 1981, Lysyk and Colwell 1996, Floate et al. The head has small, brownish-red antennae which point downward. Manure accumulation in pastures should be minimized by spreading and breaking of manure pats so that they dry faster and become unsuitable for larval development. Though horn flies typically diapause, or hibernate, as pupae over the winter in most subtropical and temperate areas (Mendes and Linhares 1999), horn fly populations are a year-round nuisance to cattle in the southeastern United States, with comparatively lower populations in the winter (Koehler et al. Oyarzún, MP, Quiroz A, Birkett MA. (Craig Sheppard, University of Georgia, Bugwood.org) host of Stephanofilaria stilesi,a 1998). Haufe WO. Learn about causes and treatment options for ram’s horn nails. The pesticide remains in the dung and can significantly reduce immature horn fly numbers for up to two months after application (Miller et al. Face fly maggots develop in freshly deposited cattle manure. Photograph by Dan Fitzpatrick, University of Florida. Horn fly adults are typically 3 to 5 millimeters in length and live for 2 to 4 weeks. Control and background of the face fly are dis-cussed here. In the autumn, populations typically increase again as temperatures drop and rainfall increases, falling off once again after September or October, as late autumn and early winter temperatures set in (Baldwin et al. Horn fly adults are typically 3 to 5 millimeters in length and live for 2 to 4 weeks. You no longer have to risk your health to bring the romance and passion back into the bedroom. When confronted with a problem, most producers are quick to spend an inordinate amount of time, energy and money treating the symptoms – while they totally ignore the problem. Revue Scientifique et Technique 13: 1125-1158. Schreiber ET, Campbell JB, Kunz SE, Clanton DC, Hudson DB. Male and female horn flies feed only on blood during their adult stage, whereas other blood-feeding flies, such as the stable fly, will consume nectar. They are ferocious and painful biters and more than 400 per animal will affect the health and productivity of cattle. The screwworm is a serious pest of livestock and certain domestic and wild animals. Onthophagous gazella Fabricius, a common scarab beetle in Florida, on a cattle  dung pat. Insecticide use can help control fly population and infestation. Preparation for TDA Pesticide Applicator License Training, College of Veterinary Medicine (cooperative with AgriLife Extension & Research), Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory. Krafsur ES, Ernst CM. Therefore, because the adult flies are not killed, and because new adult flies may emigrate from nearby untreated herds, feed-throughs are not considered cure-all treatments (Baldwin et al. Horn fly pressures of more than 200 flies per animal can result in up to a quart of blood loss, reduced grazing activity and an increased risk of anaplasmosis. Therefore, the sheer numbers of flies infesting an animal, as well as the numbers of blood meals taken daily by each fly, can result in substantial blood loss (Harris et al. and deer flies (Chrysops sp. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 11: 88-93. Medical and Veterinary Entomology 15: 117-120. 1984), but may cause additional problems by killing the other predators and by stinging the cattle, particularly calves (Hu and Frank 1996). Esterase staining activity in pyrethroid-resistant horn flies (Diptera: Muscidae). Horn flies stay on animals almost continuously. These traps utilize the horn fly's reluctance to enter a darkened building to remove the flies from the animals and then trap or kill the flies with sticky traps or electrocution as they leave the animals. Why do Horse Flies Bite Horsefly bite is a very common happening of the people around the world. 1982. ... Bacteria-caused diseases tularemia can be spread by deer fly bites, the bubonic plague by … Publication provided by University of Missouri-Columbia Entomology, Click the image for helpful information regarding Zika Virus. There are slightly over 3000 varieties of … bacteria, which cause mastitis, or infection of the teats in dairy cows, particularly in summer months (Owens et al. However, adult horn fly numbers may appear unaffected if the cattle consuming feed additives are in close proximity to an untreated herd. The risk and hazards of using insecticide should be weighed by each particular farmer. This pest can spread germs and infections such as pink eye in horses and cattle. Hogsette JA, Prichard DL, Ruff JP. Larvicidal activity of endectocides against pest flies in the dung of treated cattle. Photograph by Dan Fitzpatrick, University of Florida. Face fly larvae are yellow in color and the puparium is white. 1938. 2005). The horn fly is considered one of the most economically devastating pests of the beef cattle industry in the United States (Byford et al. Fly larvae incubate in stomach lining for up to ten months before migrating out of the body via the feces; Larvae are passed through feces into the pasture or stable grounds, where the horse is reinfected, or other horses are infected; Diagnosis. There will be itchy, red swellings around the eyes and lips. Horse fly bites vs deer fly bites Female horse flies usually bite large, nonmoving mammals on the legs or body. Photograph by Phillip Kaufman, University of Florida. Face flies are pasture flies and are not found in feedlots, dry lots or horse stables. Cow using walkthrough fly trap to remove horn flies, Haematobia irritans irritans (Linnaeus). The active ingredient gives the developing fly larvae a false sense of chemical production, this makes the larvae think they have successfully completed development and they will continue on to the pupal stage. Role of horn flies (. Symptoms of a Bad or Failing Throttle Controller Common signs include intermittent throttle control, throttle hesitation or problems hesitating, and drastic changes in fuel economy. Feed-through applications, where certain pesticides are mixed into cattle feed, result in the chemical passing through the cattle's digestive tract and hence into the manure. Horn flies are one of the most economically important pests of domestic cattle. Owens WE, Oliver SP, Gillespie BE, Ray CH, Nickerson SC. Horn fly control can mean an additional 12 to 20 pounds of weight per calf over the summer months and can result in less weight loss per nursing cow as well. Other symptoms which may be seen include the inability to … Common species of warble fly include Hypoderma bovis (the ox warble fly) and Hypoderma lineatum (the cattle warble fly) and Hypoderma tarandi (the reindeer warble fly). Therefore, use of an integrated pest management approach that utilizes several methods in tandem, will allow cattle producers to more effectively reduce adult and larval horn fly populations. Both male and female horn flies have piercing-sucking mouthparts and feed exclusively on blood. Mastitis in dairy heifers - initial studies on prevalence and control, Journal of Dairy Science 78: 1607-1618. Hot, dry conditions may naturally reduce horn fly numbers during mid-summer. Click for a hub of Extension resources related to the current COVID-19 situation. 2010. Effect of the red imported fire ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on dung-inhabiting arthropods in Florida. Horn flies received this name due to their habit of clustering around the horns of cattle, although they typically prefer to settle on the backs of cattle during the cooler parts of the day and on the belly during the hotter part of the day. Figure 1. 2006. The constant association with cattle provides more ways to treat for them. Photograph by Dan Fitzpatrick, University of Florida. 1991. The failure symptoms of a dual-mass flywheel However, if you get to the point that the dual mass flywheel needs replacement here are some symptoms (from my own experience) : A hard clutch pedal it’s not the same as The longhorn beetles (Cerambycidae; also known as long-horned or longicorns) are a large family of beetles, with over 26,000 species described, slightly more than half from the Eastern Hemisphere. Chemical control: Insecticide-impregnated ear tags became a popular and effective method for managing horn fly populations, due to the advent of low cost, highly persistent pyrethroid and organophosphate pesticides (Szalanski et al. This and other dung beetles bury large portions of the manure and accelerate manure drying, creating competition for the larvae of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans (Linnaeus), that live in the pat. Stable-fly and horn-fly dermatitis results from the destruction wrought by the bite itself, which can cause wheals, inflammation and, if scratched repeatedly, abrasions, scabbing and scarring. However, if you get to the point that the dual mass flywheel needs replacement here are some symptoms (from my own experience) : A hard clutch pedal; it’s not the same as it was before-nice and soft. Infested cattle react by licking their backs, twitching their flanks, switching their tails, and kicking at their bellies with their hind legs. Horn Flies. Horn flies occur mostly on the cow and usually only by incident on the calves. The horn fly is also a vector of several pathogens. Acquired immune response of cattle exposed to buffalo fly (. Fly bites differ depending on the type of fly. Figure 2. Figure 1. 2008). Just in the United States, hundreds of millions of dollars in losses are attributed to the horn fly annually, while additional millions are spent annually on insecticides to reduce horn fly numbers (Kunz et al. Blood-sucking flies, such as horn flies (Haematobia irritans), stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans), horse flies (Tabanus sp.) Boluses are essentially long-lasting pills that are deposited into the animal's stomach, where they slowly release the insecticide into the manure. A female horn fly oviposits, or lays, an average of 78 eggs during her adult lifespan of approximately six to seven days, but can lay up to 100-200 eggs (Krafsur and Ernst 1986). Symptoms of Horner's syndrome typically include drooping of the upper eyelid (ptosis), constriction of the pupil (miosis), sinking of the eyeball into the face, and decreased sweating on the affected side of the face ().These symptoms may vary and other symptoms may occur depending on the underlying cause of the condition. 2001). Treating a horse fly bite properly is very essential in order to ward off infection and even deadly symptoms. Key symptoms of a bad alternator are: Warning light on the dash flickers on "ALT" or "GEN". Figure 3. 1991, Byford et al. Topical insecticides applied directly to the animals consist of ear tags, residual livestock sprays, pour-ons, dust bags, back rubbers, oilers or wipe-ons. Geden CJ, Moon RD, Butler JF. There are many fly control options and strategies available to Nebraska livestock producers to help manage the three fly species that economically impact grazing cattle; the horn fly, face fly and stable fly. Interestingly, the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, also reduces immature horn fly numbers in cattle dung pats as well through predator activity (Summerlin et al. Remove tags in fall. The face fly feeds on eye secretions. Data from fluke-free cattle demonstrate that they gain an additional 0.2 lb/day in feedlot compared to cattle that have been infected by flukes (treated or untreated at entry). Compost (/ ˈ k ɒ m p ɒ s t / or / ˈ k ɒ m p oʊ s t /) is made by decomposing organic materials into simpler organic and inorganic compounds by the microorganisms in a process called composting. Gillespie BE, Owens WE, Nickerson SC, Oliver SP. It causes annual losses of between US$700 million and $1 billion, while an additional US$60 million is spent annually on insecticides to control infestation (Kunz et al. 2003). A female stings a pupa, lays a single egg, and the wasp larva feeds on and kills the pupating fly. The head has small, brownish-red antennae which point downward. Biology and control of tabanids, stable flies and horn flies. Journal of Economic Entomology 95: 1113-1118. The botfly is any fly from the family Oestridae. The body is 3.5 to 5 mm long, or about half the size of the common house fly, Musca domestica Linnaeus. The female wasp seeks out a host (horn fly pupa) in which to lay her egg. The best approach is to use several methods at once, focusing on source reduction. 1998, Gillespie et al. 2000. Veterinary Parasitology 116: 251-258. Little or delayed opening (dilation) of the affected pupil in dim light 4. Diapause, pupation sites and parasitism of the horn fly. Figure 5. Horn flies. There are many fly control options and strategies available to Nebraska livestock producers to help manage the three fly species that economically impact grazing cattle; the horn fly, face fly and stable fly. Stable fly information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other medical and health issues. Horn flies are external blood feeders and will bite an animal 20-30 times per fly per day. Eggs: Horn fly eggs are tan, yellow or white when first laid, and then darken to a reddish-brown color prior to hatching. Modern Versions of Spanish Fly. The flies are obligate internal mammalian parasites, which means they can't complete their life cycle unless the larvae have a suitable host. It’s tough to press • Sense of something hitting the clutch pedal from underneath A filarial nematode, Stephanofilaria stilesi Chitwood, causes stephanofilariasis, a dermatitis characterized by areas of crusted skin on the underside of cattle. Stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.). The larvae develop for 1-2 weeks in the manure pat before pupating in dry soil. The wasp probes the pupa twice, once to kill the horn fly larva and a second time to lay an egg. The trap is designed to knock off the horn flies upon entrance, the flying horn flies become trapped inside the walls by the use of inverted slats that prevents them from flying out. Nickerson SC, Owens WE, Boddie RL. Although there are no products for horn fly control on the market containing Bt, recent research has indicated that several strains of Bt are highly toxic to horn fly larvae (Lysyk et al. During that time, the flies feed exclusively on the blood of livestock, consuming over 20 meals per day. A notable difference in pupil size between the two eyes (anisocoria) 3. Stable fly is the most universally accepted common name but there are many others used to refer to this pest, including dog fly because of their preference for canine hosts, biting house fly because of their similarity in appearance to house flies, and power-mower fly after a paper by Ware (1966). Fly bites can cause symptoms such as itching, redness, and swelling. 1974. Typically found on cattle of the western and southwestern United States and Canada, S. stilesi can affect up to 80 to 90% of a herd (Hibler 1966). The spiracular plates of a third instar larva (top) and a pupa (bottom) of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans (Linnaeus). Bruce WG. Cupp EW, Cupp MS, Ribeiro JMC, Kunz SE. As always, it is important to carefully read and follow the insecticide label concerning the application of any insecticide to cattle and precautions concerning calves and lactating dairy cattle. Horn flies are also smaller (5 mm in length), and have no major patterns on the dorsal (back) side of their abdomen, while stable flies are 7 to 8 mm long and have a "checkerboard" appearance of the top of the abdomen. 1998). Cattle, bison and water buffalo, horses and other large mammals. Pupae: The pupae are 3 to 4 mm long and white at first, the outer pupal covering sclerotizes, or hardens, turning dark reddish-brown over several hours. Figure 10. A horn fly leaves the back of a cow or calf only to lay eggs in fresh manure. When insecticide is reapplied to the backrubbers and dustbugs every two to three weeks, they are reasonably effective for managing horn flies (Baldwin et al. The male and female horn flies both take bloodmeals multiple times a day (20-30). This process recycles various organic materials otherwise regarded as waste products. 1986. Photographs by Dan Fitzpatrick (horn fly), Jerry Butler (stable fly), University of Florida. Managing the horn fly (Diptera: Muscidae) using an electric walk-through fly trap. Lyperosia meridionalis Bezzi, 1911 Foil LD, Hogsette JA. 2005). Since they have not completed development many will never emerge from the pupal stage and others will emerge but the exoskeleton will not be able to harden and the fly will die due to exposure to the environment. Photograph by Dan Fitzpatrick, University of Florida. Dung beetles of the family Scarabaeidae, as well as other predaceous beetles of the families Staphylinidae and Histeridae, are important natural predators of larval horn flies in the manure (Hu and Frank 1996, Oyarzún et al. Predatory mites, beetles, and other fly larvae feast on the developingstable fly larvae. Extensive horn fly feeding can also severely damage cattle hides, which results in poorer quality leather (Pruett et al. Phenology of horn fly populations (Diptera: Muscidae) in Iowa, USA. It is a non-biting fly that feeds on … 2003). Summerlin JW, Petersen HD, Harris RL. 2000). Fly populations peak in early summer, then decline as the weather becomes hot and dry. Horn flies are commonly reported on beef cattle in large numbers, with thousands of flies occurring on individual animals. They characteristically rest with their heads pointing toward the ground and their wings held at a 45 to 60 degree angle to their bodies. When the adult emerges from the pupal case, it takes approximately three days to complete maturation of the reproductive organs that allow for egg production. Parasitic wasps, referred to as parasitoids, are particularly effective. Because they reproduce quickly, horn fly populations can quickly overwhelm animals. Learn more about fly bites here. Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), the stable fly (Figure 1), is a filth fly of worldwide medical and veterinary importance. These pesticides are injected or topically applied to and absorbed by cattle and are excreted unaltered in the manure. Environmental Entomology 21: 1134-1138. Weakness. Parasitic wasps, referred to as parasitoids, are particularly effective against horn flies and house flies but have shown poor results with stable flies thus far. Get insights on the symptoms such swelling, best repellent, how to get rid and treatment of hoarse flies bites. Activity of. Duration of efficacy of diazinon ear tags and ivermectin pour-on for control of horn fly (Diptera: Muscidae). In addition to the excessive number of painful bites that occur on a daily basis, the lesions can lead to secondary infections and cosmetic defects in tanned or dyed leather. The adult horn fly is 3-5 mm long with piercing/sucking mouthparts that are painful to cattle. Sanson DW, DeRosa AA, Oremus GR, Foil LD. There are many symptoms to fly bites in horses. Miller JA, Kunz SE, Oehler DD, Miller RW. In addition to the teat damage they cause, feeding flies can introduce the bacteria into open wounds, causing significant infection (Edwards et al. They can be seen on the withers, back and side of the cattle and will move to the belly during the hottest parts of the day. 1992. Lysyk TJ. Horn fly control can mean an additional 12 to 20 pounds of weight per calf over the summer months and can result in less weight loss per nursing cow as well. Three general approaches to reduce problems include: 1)    Prevent breeding by making manure unavailable or too dry or wet for the larvae to survive or kill the larvae before they become adults, 2)    Kill adults before they cause harm or start to produce eggs, 3)    Exclude adults entrance by using screens or other barriers. Onchocerca cervicalis – This can develop crusting, ulcers, hair loss, and scales on the neck, chest & abdomen. 1991, Byford et al. Haematobia serrata Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 Environmental Entomology 13: 1405-1410. Typically, Horner syndrome results in a decreased pupil size, a drooping eyelid and decreased sweating on the affected side of your face. They suck blood from the host 24 hours a day. 2000). The adult horn fly is 3-5 mm long with piercing/sucking mouthparts that are painful to cattle. Individual flies pierce the skin with their short, tube-like mouthparts 20 to … Lateral view of an adult horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans (Linnaeus). A cloud of horn flies (the numerous white specks), Haematobia irritans irritans (Linnaeus), feeding on cows. 1999. The four stage life cycle takes about 15 to 25 days. Horn fly allergy (allergic dermatitis) During the horn fly season, cattle often develop a skin allergy to the saliva of the biting horn flies. After several weeks, an inflammatory reaction occurs in the skin, and many hair follicles are destroyed. Symptoms of a horse fly bite include: The bite will be very itchy. 1991). More recently, insecticides formulated into pour-ons are increasingly used. The body is 3.5 to 5 mm long, or about half the size of the common house fly, Musca domesticaLinnaeus. 1995, Edwards et al. However, production losses associated to this nematode or other adverse reactions in cattle have not been reported. C. pseudotuberculosis enters cut, abrasion, fly bite Horn fly spreads bacteria from horse to horse Unsterile equipment used on infected and uninfected horses Hand to horse contact after exposure to infection C. pseudotuberculosis (December 2005). EDIS. Allergies to stable flies affect the eyes, back, neck, chest and legs of a horse. Dorsal view of an adult horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans (Linnaeus). Predatory mites, beetles, and other fly larvae feast on the developingstable fly larvae. They have been known to feed on horses, dogs, swine and sometimes humans. The thorax has two parallel stripes on the dorsal surface, just behind the head. and deer flies (Chrysops sp. Data indicates that heavy horn fly infections of cattle (100 flies in North or 200 flies/animal in South) reduce gain by 0.1 lb/day while heavy sucking lice infections reduce gain by 0.1 lb/day. Because of horn fly feeding behavior and the sheer numbers of flies present on the animals, cattle expend a great degree of energy in defensive behavior. Screwworm (fly), a parasitic fly known for its screw-shaped larvae, which infest open wounds. Bovine teat atresia associated with horn fly (. There are slightly over 3000 varieties of … The maxillary palpi of the horn fly are nearly as long as its proboscis, whereas the stable fly's palpi are considerably shorter than its proboscis. Static thresholds have been established, based on the numbers of horn flies per animal, in order to determine whether the implementation of fly management is economically necessary. It could be a loose belt, faulty wiring or a blown Cattle manure is the requisite habitat for larval development, and adults principally feed on cattle, with females leaving their host only long enough to lay eggs in fresh manure. The adult horn flies stay in continual contact with the cattle, resting on them between feedings. Remove before slaughter. Spalangia sp. Lysyk TJ. Horn flies differ from another major cattle pest, the stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans (Linnaeus)), in several ways. 1991). The failure symptoms of a dual-mass flywheel. Both of these techniques kill only the immature stages of the horn fly and do not affect the adult flies feeding on the animals. A practical trap for the control of horn flies on cattle. The botfly is a type of parasitic fly, best known for disturbing images of its larval stage buried in skin and from horror stories of infested people. Horn flies suck blood, irritate and annoy, reduce weight gains and cause weight losses. Growth of range cattle protected from horn flies. Harris RL, Miller JA, Frazar ED. Lysyk TJ, Kalischuk-Tymensen LD, Rochon K, Selinger LB. It is found in subtropical and tropical climates from the extreme southern United States to Argentina. Photograph by Dan Fitzpatrick, University of Florida. 1992). Metabolic and behavior responses indicate that horn flies increase the amount of energy spent by cattle when defending themselves, leaving less energy available for growth. Of Missouri-Columbia Entomology, Click the image for helpful information regarding Zika Virus other adverse reactions cattle. Appearance on one end and rounded on the underside of the red imported fire ant ( Hymenoptera Pteromalidae. Directly to the infested manure pats while others can last two weeks,. Have advanced this original idea of a cow or calf only to lay an egg strategies! 3 to 5 mm long with piercing/sucking mouthparts that are deposited into the animal, causing extreme nervousness energy... Florida ’ s tourism industry Jerry Butler ( stable fly ( Diptera: Muscidae ) University Florida. Diapause in the average daily growth rate of nursing calves common scarab in... White and about 1.5 mm long with a slender pointed head causing nervousness... 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